11 Forms Of Birth Control—And Their Side Effects

1. Introduction

As the realm of birth control expands, so do the options available to individuals seeking effective contraception. Whether you’re looking for a temporary solution or a more permanent choice, understanding the side effects associated with each method is crucial to making an informed decision.

2. Barrier Methods


Condoms are a widely used barrier method that not only prevent pregnancy but also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Some individuals may experience latex allergies or reduced sensitivity when using condoms.


Diaphragms, along with spermicide, create a barrier at the cervix to prevent sperm from reaching the uterus. However, they may increase the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and require precise placement.

Cervical Caps

Similar to diaphragms, cervical caps cover the cervix to inhibit sperm movement. They share similar considerations and potential side effects as diaphragms.

3. Hormonal Methods

Birth Control Pills

Birth control pills are a popular hormonal method that regulates the menstrual cycle. While they are effective, they can lead to mood changes, weight gain, or nausea in some users.

Birth Control Patch

The birth control patch releases hormones through the skin to prevent pregnancy. It may cause skin irritation at the application site and carry similar side effects as birth control pills.

Birth Control Shot

The birth control shot, administered every few months, is convenient for many. However, it can lead to irregular bleeding and temporary bone density loss.

Birth Control Ring

The birth control ring is inserted into the vagina and remains in place for three weeks. Some individuals might experience vaginal discomfort or increased vaginal discharge.

Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)

IUDs are small devices inserted into the uterus, offering long-term contraception. Hormonal IUDs may cause hormonal fluctuations, while copper IUDs could lead to heavier periods and cramping.

4. Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARCs)

Copper IUD

The copper IUD releases no hormones but may lead to increased menstrual bleeding and discomfort during periods.

Hormonal IUD

Hormonal IUDs provide contraception and can also reduce menstrual bleeding. However, they might cause hormonal side effects similar to other hormonal birth control methods.

Birth Control Implant

A small implant under the skin releases hormones to prevent pregnancy. While effective, it could cause irregular bleeding and mood changes.

5. Permanent Methods

Tubal Ligation

Tubal ligation involves surgically closing the fallopian tubes, providing permanent contraception. As with any surgery, there are risks involved.


Vasectomy is a permanent option for males, involving the cutting or sealing of the vas deferens. It’s generally considered irreversible, so careful consideration is necessary.

6. Natural Methods

Fertility Awareness-Based Methods

These methods involve tracking ovulation to avoid intercourse during fertile periods. They require consistent monitoring and may not be as effective as other options.

Withdrawal Method

Also known as “pulling out,” this method involves the male withdrawing before ejaculation. It’s a less effective method due to potential pre-ejaculate containing sperm.

7. Side Effects and Considerations

Before selecting a birth control method, it’s important to consider potential side effects, effectiveness, and personal preferences. Consulting with a healthcare provider is advised to make an informed decision.

8. Conclusion

Choosing the right birth control method is a personal decision that depends on various factors. By understanding the different forms of birth control and their associated side effects, individuals can make choices that align with their reproductive health goals.

9. FAQs

Q1: Are there birth control methods that protect against STIs?
Q2: Do hormonal birth control methods cause weight gain in everyone?
Q3: Can IUDs be used by individuals who have never given birth?
Q4: What is the most effective form of reversible contraception?
Q5: How can I determine which birth control method is right for me?

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